By Globokar, Julie L.; Roberson, Cliff; Winters, Robert C

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It was not unusual for professional photographers to sell souvenir pictures of these events for attendees to mail to their friends and family. The crowd would participate in the mutilation of the accused, sometimes engaging in great brutality while the accused was still alive. The body would not only be hanged but also shot and sometimes burned. Members of the crowd would take souvenirs that sometimes included “pieces of the rope, links of the chain, or pieces of the tree where [the accused] had been tied.

20 At the same time, in some parts of the country and for some populations, punishment began to take other forms. It was in the late 1700s that the most significant experiments with incarceration as punishment first took place, as with the Walnut Street Jail in Philadelphia. Influenced heavily by Pennsylvania Quakers, the jail was a move away from corporal punishment, with the hope that offenders could be reformed by a period of isolated penance. Jails quickly earned a reputation as criminogenic, though, with the thought that they simply expose offenders to like-minded individuals and, in some cases, subject them to cruelty at the hands of guards that approximated the physical punishments the penitentiary movement was intended to curb.

Questions are asked regarding crimes suffered by individuals and households, and whether or not those crimes were reported to law enforcement. This allows for an estimate of the proportion of each crime type reported to law enforcement and a summary of the reasons that victims give for reporting or not reporting. The survey provides information about victims (age, sex, race, ethnicity, marital status, income, and educational level), offenders (sex, race, approximate age, and victim–offender relationship), and the crimes (time and place of occurrence, use of weapons, nature of injury, and economic consequences).

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