By Karl Maramorosch, Aaron J. Shatkin

The Advances in Virus examine sequence covers a various variety of in-depth studies offering a useful assessment of the present box of virology. This eclectic quantity comprises six studies masking subject matters on the subject of plant viruses, evolution of viruses with hosts and cellphone reputation via viruses.

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It is likely that the higherthan-normal replication contributes to the cytopathic effects, but the exact mechanism is unknown. , 1998). Although these studies showed that preS is phosphorylated in response to ER stress, indicating some host cell-virus cross talk, no essential role of L phosphorylation in virus replication was identified. , 1998). Although cccDNA levels were not examined in these birds, these various studies point to the importance of a functional L protein in maintaining a nonpathogenic, persistent infection.

These two properties are not entirely equivalent: P protein binding is necessary but not sufficient for initiation. P binding usually requires that an RNA can adopt a wt-like secondary structure containing a few specific bases at defined positions; mutations causing formation of a stable non-wt-like structure prevent binding. Surprisingly, at first sight, some RNA mutants meeting the first criterion and binding to P failed to act as replication origin; another mutant bound despite a clearly different structure and supported DNA initation just as did the wtRNA.

The doubleshelled structure seen by negative staining electron microscopy is formed by the inner core of 27 nm, which is covered by the envelope or surface proteins and a small amount of cellular membrane lipid. DHBVinfected ducks also produce large quantities of empty, subviral particles 34 URSULA SCHULTZ ET AL. FIG 8. Model of the DHBV envelope. A cross-section view of the proposed envelope organization of S, L, and St proteins is shown. The predicted transmembrane domains (1–3) are indicated by the cylindrical segments, with the bulk being contributed by the S protein.

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