By Robert D. Van Valin Jr.

This quantity offers study on significant concerns in syntactic thought inside of position and Reference Grammar. This idea used to be first awarded intimately in Functional Syntax and common Grammar [FSUG], and those papers characterize either expansions and purposes of the speculation to quite a lot of phenomena. the 1st part comprises an creation to the idea that's the main thorough assertion of it because FSUG, summarizing the positive factors of position and Reference Grammar tested there and constructing new theoretical elements and analyses of syntactic phenomena no longer mentioned within the previous paintings. through the dialogue positive aspects of RRG are in comparison and contrasted with related positive factors of different syntactic theories. the rest of the quantity is dedicated to specified analyses of particular difficulties, e.g. keep watch over, case marking, in a large choice of languages, e.g. Mandarin chinese language, Nootka, Mparntwe Arrernte and Turkish. hence the works provided the following illustrate good the powerful cross-linguistic method of syntactic concept and outline in function and Reference Grammar.

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In Van Valin (1985, 1987a) it was argued that with respect to clauses in head-marking languages, the pronominal affixes on the verb are the core 18 ROBERT D. V A N VALIN, JR. arguments of the clause, not the optional independent lexical NPs and pro­ nouns. The structure of (8a,b) would thus be those in Figure 7 (the operator projection is omitted). The structure of (8b) is given in Figure 7a; the sen­ tence and clause consist of a single core, which is made up of the nucleus (the verb stem -pet "carry") and its two arguments, here manifested by the bound morphemes 0 - "3ABS" and s- "3ERG".

Each of the NPs in Figure 10 would be given a double projection like this in a complete rep­ resentation. 12 One of the major parallels between NPs and Ss posited by Jackendoff and Chomsky is that both have structurally defined subject positions, and this particular similarity is specifically denied in the RRG account. There are two main reasons for this. g. the company's construction of the bridge, and therefore it is highly inappropriate to base a universal theory of NP structure on the facts 22 ROBERT D.

It is outranked by locative for undergoer, as shown by the possibility of Milton hit the window (with a stick), where the effector-theme is omissible, and the impossibility of Mil­ ton hit the stick (*against the window) with stick interpreted as an effectortheme; without the locative PP, the NP after hit must be given its unmarked reading, that of locative. The prototypical actor is an agent, the prototypical undergoer a patient, but effectors, experiencers, locatives and even themes (with intransitive activity verbs of motion) can also function as actor, and loca­ tives, experiencers and themes can also serve as undergoer; this depends on the LS of the particular verb, as shown in Table 4.

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