By Chin-hue Lee, Haizhou Li, Lin-shan Lee, Ren-hua Wang, Qiang Huo

After a long time of study task, chinese language spoken language processing (CSLP) has complicated significantly either in sensible know-how and theoretical discovery. during this ebook, the editors supply either an advent to the sector in addition to special study issues of their strategies in quite a few parts of CSLP. The contributions signify pioneering efforts starting from CSLP ideas to applied sciences and purposes, with every one bankruptcy encapsulating a unmarried challenge and its recommendations.

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This remarkable process is controlled by a unique structural feature of the hair cell. The bottom of each hair cell rests on the basilar membrane, while the stereocilia extend from the top of the hair cell. The stapes vibrates the endolymph in the scala media, thus causing movements of the hair 14 L. Deng and J. Dang bundles of the hair cells, which are acoustic sensor cells that convert vibration into electrical potentials. The hair cells in the organ of Corti are tuned to certain sound frequencies, being responsive to high frequencies near the oval window and to low frequencies near the apex of the cochlea.

In a sense, they follow the idea of wavelets, which allow time and frequency resolution in automatic analysis to follow that of the ear. Part of the auditory processing of sounds is adjusting for context. Since human audition is always active, even when people are not specifically listening, it is normal to ignore ambient sounds. People pay attention to unexpected auditory information, while ignoring many predictable and thus useless aspects 26 L. Deng and J. Dang of sounds. These adjustments come naturally to humans, as part of the maturation of their hearing systems.

If the prediction is accurate, then these coefficients can be used to efficiently represent or to "code" a long sequence of the signal (within each window). Linear prediction expressed in the time-domain is mathematically equivalent to modeling of an all-pole resonance system. This type of resonance system has been a rather accurate model for the vocal tract when vowel sounds are produced. LPC is the most common technique for low-bit-rate speech coding and its popularity derives from its simple computation and reasonably accurate representation of many types of speech signals.

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