By Nicole Nau
Latgalian is a local language of Latvia in relevant Europe, usually utilized by an envisioned variety of 150,000 audio system. Genetically it belongs to the jap Baltic department of Indo-European. whereas its shut courting to Latvian is clear in easy vocabulary and inflectional morphemes, there also are major alterations within the phonology, morphology and syntax of the 2 languages, because of divergent improvement in the course of the seventeenth - nineteenth c., while Latgalia used to be politically and culturally separated from different Latvian territories. in addition, touch with Slavic languages (Polish, Belarusian, Russian) has performed a huge position within the heritage of Latgalian.
Typologically salient positive factors of Latgalian contain morphophonological concord with an competition of again vs. entrance vowels and gentle (palatalized or alveolar) vs. tough consonants, a wide stock of non-finite verb varieties, genitive vs. accusative marking of direct gadgets, dative marking of fundamental center arguments in quite a few structures, using non-finite predicates in represented speech, and the lifestyles of a special logophoric pronoun touching on the speaker of a stated discourse.
Nicole Nau is professor of Baltic languages and linguistics at Adam Mickiewicz college in Pozna?, Poland. She can be the writer of LWM 217: Latvian.
ISBN 9783862880553. Languages of the World/Materials 482. 120pp. 2011
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Extra info for A short grammar of Latgalian
VTnu drnu tavs saceja dalym, ka reit jokaun cyuka, ja zrmys laika beja pTsnidzs tik daudz snTga, ka sermo cyuka soka kopiajat pa jumtym. 'At some edge of a swamp there lived two brothers, Jezups and Savers. They had a grey pig. One day father told [his] sons that the next day [the] pig had to be slaughtered, for so much snow had fallen during winter that the grey pig started to clamber about [the] roofs. SG The numeral vlns 'one' can have a similar effect, as in vlnu dlnu 'one day, on a certain day' and example (104) below.
The case-forms of non-prefixed reflexive verbal nouns are as follows : singular -son-uos -son-uos -son-us NOM GEN ACC plural -son-uos -son-us -son-uos Prefixed reflexive nouns have the reflexive marker -sa- between prefix and base; with the prefixes iz- and aiz- it melts into iza- and aiza-, respectively: iz iza-lobuo-son-u. :) to PFX:RFX-improve-VN-A 'Acknowledging is a way towards improvement:)' (IS) The verbal noun is frequently found in both traditional and modern texts. It forms part of idiomatic expressions.
Early(ADV)-COMP In the superlative construction the emphatic pronoun pats is often posed before an adjective with comparative suffix and definite ending; pats and the adjective are inflected for the same agreement categories (except for definiteness, which is inherent in the pronoun): (1 28) Kas Tov-a dzeiv-e ir pat-s svareig-uok-ais? PL more than tagad! today This construction is frequently found in both traditional and contemporary texts. )'. ' (Sus) 17 This preposition also has some of the meanings of English for (Latin pro), for example in contrast to 'agai nst' , or in 'to vote for ', 'to fight for' or ' in exchange for'.