By Rachel Nordlinger, Felicity Meakins

This quantity is a grammatical description of Bilinarra, an endangered Australian language. This paintings attracts on fabrics accumulated over a 20-year interval from the final first-language audio system of the language, so much of whom have on the grounds that kicked the bucket. specified recognition is paid to all features of the grammar, with all examples supplied with linked sound records.

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Additional info for A Grammar of Bilinarra: An Australian Aboriginal Language of the Northern Territory

Sample text

Moreover, many lives had already been lost through a wave of disease, particularly smallpox, that had preceded the first settlers (Rose 1991: 75 onwards; Lewis 2012: 18). The population was further weakened by a series of killing sprees carried out by the gardiya wanting to secure the land for cattle. These massacres were often justified by settlers as acts of retribution against Aboriginal people for killing their cattle (Lewis 2012: 104 onwards). Popular ideologies of the time, such as those that represented Aboriginal people as ‘cannibals who ate babies’ and ‘stone age people destined to die out’, salved the consciences of those carrying out the massacres.

Indeed cattle station owners realised that Aboriginal people could provide a source of cheap labour. By this time in Australia’s colonisation, convict labour was no longer available. Rose (2000: 14) suggests that Aboriginal people in the VRD, including the Bilinarra, came to work on cattle stations as a means of survival. People who chose to hold out in the bush remained constant targets for attacks by gardiya. On the other hand, Aboriginal people on the stations were afforded some level of peace, with their labour given in exchange for their lives.

1 Introduction Bilinarra is a Pama-Nyungan language of the Victoria River District (VRD) of the Northern Territory (Australia). It is a member of the Ngumpin subgroup which forms a part of the Ngumpin-Yapa family (McConvell and Laughren 2004), which also includes Warlpiri (Hale 1981, 1982, 1983; Hale, Laughren, and Simpson, 1995; Laughren 1988, 1989, 2002; Laughren and Hoogenraad 1996; Nash 1986; Simpson 1991, 2007; Simpson and Mushin 2008) and Warlmanpa (Nash 1981). ) and Walmajarri (Hudson 1978; Hudson and Richards 1978).

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