By Atul Luthra

This ebook offers postgraduate trainees with 50 actual scientific cardiology circumstances. Divided into fourteen sections, a number of circumstances are awarded below each one classification overlaying numerous problems of the cardiac process, together with congenital middle ailments, aortic valve illnesses, pulmonary illnesses, ECG abnormalities, cardiac arrhythmias, coronary artery illness and lots more and plenty extra. starting with a quick heritage and findings in line with actual exam, every one case then contains analytical dialogue on bedside investigations and recommendations for therapy. Authored via a acknowledged specialist within the box, this functional publication is very illustrated with echocardiographic, radiographic and electrocardiographic facts. Key issues * provides 50 actual scientific cardiology instances * Covers a variety of issues of the cardiac procedure * Authored via recognized heart specialist * comprises greater than 217 pictures, illustrations and tables

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G. CABG) RECENT ADVANCES The technique of percutaneous aortic valve replacement (AVR) has been recently refined and its feasibility is now clearly established. It is particular suitable for candidates at high risk for a surgical procedure under general anesthesia. The role of percutaneous aortic balloon valvuloplasty is currently limited. C A S E 10 Aortic Regurgitation CASE PRESENTATION A 54-year old man presented with breathlessness on exertion and throbbing headache. His exertional dyspnea started about 8 months back and progressed to the extent that he found it difficult to climb even one flight of stairs.

PERTINENT INVESTIGATIONS It is not unusual for patients of mitral valve prolapse to undergo a battery of sophisticated cardiac investigations, in the search for the diagnosis of a serious heart disease. Besides ECG and ECHO which do show some typical abnormalities, exercise stress test is done which is more often false-positive. Ambulatory 24-hour Holter monitoring frequently shows supraventricular and sometimes ventricular ectopic beats and rarely if ever reveals life-threatening arrhythmias. Myocardial perfusion imaging and coronary angiography expectedly do not show any significant abnormality.

It coincides with the a wave of the jugular vein. The S4 is always pathological in aortic stenosis, systemic hypertension and restrictive or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. An acute rise in left ventricular enddiastolic pressure (LVEDP) as in acute coronary syndrome or acute valvular regurgitation causes acute onset of S4. The S2 appears single because the A2 is muffled. If A2 is audible, the splitting of S2 is paradoxical or reverse, with the A2 following the P2 due to prolonged left ventricular ejection time.

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